Electronic circuits, made of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are ubiquitous in day-to-day life. However, even these familiar and seemingly simple systems can exhibit quantum behavior at low temperatures, despite being macroscopically large (often on the scale of several millimeters). The key to accessing this quantum behavior is the use of superconducting elements, which both avoid dissipation that would otherwise spoil quantum effects, and introduce quantum coherence over macroscopic scales. In fact, these superconducting circuits have proven to be a powerful tool for quantum information processing and quantum simulation, and their study has become a field of its own: “circuit Quantum Electrodynamics”(cQED).
In our lab, we are developing new techniques which leverage superconducting circuits to probe quantum materials. By integrating exotic materials into these circuits, we can interrogate their electrodynamic response at microwave frequencies and achieve exquisite sensitivities. Moreover, the cQED architecture allows efficient coupling to mesoscopic and nanoscale systems which are otherwise challenging to probe using conventional techniques. We are currently using these techniques to explore quantum phases in two-dimensional van der Waals materials and hybrid quantum systems.